Unit2 The Power of Words 1

发布于:2021-10-14 10:29:19

Unit2 The Power of Words
Class 1 Uplifting (synonyms )

Steps
? 1. 2. 3. 4. Presentation time Text synonyms Examples of” words have power” p23 Class topics The Civil Rights Movement p30-36

5. Topics for the next class: 高速公路可不 可以扔垃圾? 6. 为何美国人喜欢go Dutch and Chinese

Dictation
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? enthusiasm, impact self-esteem, motivate, Instant Fleeting Reveal Realistic realism ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Retreat recall Advance Nameless unreasoning, unjustified Just justice justness Justify justified justification terror, Paralyzes Analyze convert

Steps for
? Campaign slogans “Change. Yes, we can.” and civil rights movement ? Good sentences: Satag’s ? Topics (最后PPT)

Speaking: topics
? P24 ? A tour plan ? a feasible plan for a project
? Words in the next PPT

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

amusement park theme park theme activity package a packaged tour scenic spots tourist acttractions historic sites workable feasible 可行 性的 ? to have morning tea

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

target customer where to go tea house bar pub chinese herbal medicine

? ? ? ? ?

would have i'd'v like it i like him/her love it

The power of notes p47
1. Check the Exs p 57 2. Check question 2 and 3 .a Find words that are repeated in this article and their synonyms(同义词)。 b. Underline the sentences that you like very much. (3 sentence)

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

inspiring encouraging spiritlifting uplifting upbeat lift up boost

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

exaggerating overstatement don't be dramatic. thrive thriving business intrigue i was cut out for a writer. ? savor saver

? ? ? ? ?

Boost Everybody needs a boost I our life. Note Lift up uplifting Inspiring spirit-lifting encouraging motivating upbeat positive ? admiring

To be remembered
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Intrigue arouse interest or curiosity of Keep up the good work I had the right stuff to be a writer. I was cut out for a doctor. They were cut out of the same cloth. People in all walks of life. Have a body a friends as big as Lake Erie. Flooded with Spirit-lifting words Drawback Attach more importance to our well-wishing良好意愿 Savor and treasure 细细品味,加以珍藏

? We all need a boost from time to time, and a few lines of praise have been known to turn around a day, even a life. ? Got a warm pat on the back. ? Fancy stationery isn’t necessary; it’s the thought that counts. ? Count me in. (include by counting) ? count me out. (exclude by counting) ? You really count with me. (have importance) ? Their opinions count for a little. (have a value) ? You can always count on him. (rely on) ? Fall back on fall apart ? Pop culture I never fall apart as I never fall together.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Make it a practice 成为惯常的做法 Reinforcement 鼓励 增强 Thrive on it 成功,进步 Vague 含糊,not clear Strain my voice 声嘶力竭 Precise Spontaneous Keep sth.at hand

Words Accountable responsible; that can be explained
? Every person is accountable for his own work. ? 每个人都要对自己的工作负责。 ? His bad temper is easily accountable; he has had a toothache all day. ? 他的坏脾气是容易理解的, 因他整日牙痛。
? See next ppt for more and report to sb.

? Accountability/accountableness ? Whom do you think I’m accountable to? ? report to sb.
? hold sb. accountable for ? Whoever made the wrong step shall be held accountable/responsible for what happened in the game.

shift
? ? ? ? ? They work on shifts. Night shift, day shift Shift one’s attention to sth. else. Don’t shift the subject. 转移话题。 shifting wind 方向不定的风 A shifting character 琢磨不定的性格

mental
? ? ? ? ? ? ? Mental problem physical Mental hospital. He was mentally sick. 发疯 词汇扩展sicko psycho sick nuts about go mental/crazy/nuts/loony/insane mental(口) 精神病, 精神病患者 Such a mental case. mentality智力, 精神, 心理, 思想情况

Flaw flawless
? my flawed thinking.有缺陷的 ? As if focusing on success was a flaw in my character. ? a flaw in an otherwise perfect character ? 白璧之瑕, 美德中仅有的缺点 ? a flaw in a plan ? 计划不周

Jolt stun
1.To disturb suddenly and severely; stun: ? 震惊,诧异:突然并且严重地扰乱;使震惊: ? She was jolted by the betrayal of her trusted friend. ? 她被信任的朋友出卖,感到大为震惊 2. To put into a specified condition by or as if by a blow: ? 击入,摇撼:通过打击或仿佛通过打击使…处于一种特定 情形中: ? “Now and then he jolted a nodding reader awake by inserting a witty paragraph” ? “他不时地插入一段风趣幽默的话,让打瞌睡的读者提起 精神”(沃尔特· 布莱尔)

Class activity
? List the advantages and disadvantages of calling and writing according to the passage.

Class activity
? ? ? ? P85 Is a picture worth 1000 words? P90 Translation practice

bee gees words
? smile an everlasting smile a smile can bring you near ? talk in everlasting words to me and dedicate them all to don't ever let me find you gone me cause that would bring a and i will give you all tear to me my life this world has lost its glory i'm here if you should let's start a brand new now call to me my love you think that i don't right now there'll be no other time even mean and i can show you how a single word i say my love it's only words and

words are all i have to take your heart away

About Words
? 08年诺贝尔文学家获得者勒克莱齐奥Le Clezio 说:“笔墨有时比石头还重要,可 以对抗暴力。” ? “Brush pens and ink are, sometimes, even more important than stones. They can be used to fight against violence.”

Examples
? Cite examples about the power of words both in the Eastern culture and the Western culture. ? E.g. “Change. Yes We Can.” (background)

examples
? Obama when challenged: All words… ? “Who can deny the power of words?” ? The only thing we have to fear is fear itself . “我们唯一应该恐惧的是恐惧本身” ? I HAVE A DREAM (Why is this a powerful example?) ? Change. Yes We Can. (background)

Election Campaign Slogans
? “It’s Economy, Stupid!”(“蠢材,经济 才是关 键问题!”)(1992, Clinton) It’s the President, Stupid! (2006, Obama) New Freedom 新的自由 (Wilson ) New Deal (Roosevelt) Fair Deal 公*施政(Truman) New Labor 新工党 (Blair) 我要做好呢(这)份公。(曾荫权,2007)

Articles to be read The Conscience of Words
? if I have to choose between truth and justice--of course, I don't want to choose--I choose truth.
? Not: Been there, done that. But: For this, against that.

About Words
? We fret烦恼 about words, we writers. Words mean. Words point. They are arrows. Arrows stuck in the rough side of reality. (The Conscience of Words By SUSAN SONTAG 苏珊.桑塔格 “真相高于 正义”)

翻译 Main Points
? Poorly chosen words can kill enthusiasm, impact self-esteem, lower expectations and hold people back. Well chosen ones can motivate, offer hope, create vision, impact thinking and alter results. Words have power over one’s thoughts and actions. They also impact and influence on people one speaks to.

Background of Roosevelt’s Speech
Franklin Roosevelt (1888-1945)became president in 1933. The U.S was then in the grip of world-wide business depression. Pain, fear, and despair filled the whole country. Roosevelt used his powers to create jobs and helped those who needed helps. Many of Roosevelt’s ideas of the government are still part of the law of the land.

原文
? Let me express my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itselfnameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror, which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.
让我来表明我坚定的信念:我们唯一害怕 的其实就是害怕本身--一种不可名状的、丧 失理智的、毫无根据的恐惧。它把人们转 退为进所需要的种种努力化为泡影。

Background of King’s Speech
? Civil Rights Movement in 1960s ? Delivered at the steps of Lincoln Memorial (林肯 纪念堂)in Washington D.C. on Aug. 28, 1963 ? Supported by sympathizers of black movements for equal rights. ? Lincoln’s Emancipation in 1863 ? American Dream. ? America,the land of the free and the home of the brave.自由人的土地 勇敢者的家园 美国国歌 ? “And the star-spangled点缀 banner in triumph shall wave O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.” ? “这里是自由人的土地。勇敢者的家。”

The Civil Rights Movement
? a. b. ? a. b. Direct action tactics: non-violent civil disobedience非 暴力不合作/温和抵抗 Antisegregation反种族隔离:“sit-in” 静坐and “freedom rides”自由乘车 Voter registration选民登记 Achievement: Segregation was breaking down. The Civil Right Act was passed and signed into law in 1964. Figures involved: Martin Luther King,Jr.—I Have a Dream Malcolm X— “Achievement by all necessary means”

?

American Beliefs and Values
? We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. ? The Declaration of Independence(1776)

The 1889 rush to claim land in Oklahoma

American Dream
? American Dream: “from rags to riches” 从赤贫到暴富. As long as they work hard and smart, they would rise to a higher social position regardless of their originally lower background. Lincoln: any man who is willing to work hard should live a decent life.

? 推荐书:《源泉》安.兰德 ? 更好地理解美国人的精神和价值观。

“The American Dream is still very much alive.
Dreaming great dreams is what keeps American society going—from the waitress who wants to become a car dealer to the street kid who wants to become a basketball star. Europeans dream dreams too, but don’t seem to believe in them so much.” (from the essay The ABCs of the U.S.A: America Seen with European Eyes by Michael Dobbs).

? American Dream: 指19世纪美国经济繁荣 时期的一种理想,即美国宪法保障其公民 拥有均等的机会,从而使每一个美国人都 可能通过自我奋斗获得成功。美国梦一般 指只要愿动脑,肯苦干,就能成为有地位、 有财富的人。

Hard Work
The price paid for material wealth: hard work. ? Americans generally believe that “Hard work is both necessary and rewarding”. Necessary: this new land is rich in natural resources but all undeveloped, hard work can convert转变 these natural resources into material possessions and a comfortable standard of living. Rewarding: as long as you work hard, you can live a better life in this “land of plenty”. ? Puritan’s belief: hard work, no desire for entertainment and self-discipline. (American’s hero: Benjamin Franklin) ? Reality: no work, no food, no survival in those hard times.

bee gees words
? smile an everlasting smile a smile can bring you near ? talk in everlasting words to me and dedicate them all to don't ever let me find you gone me cause that would bring a and i will give you all tear to me my life this world has lost its glory i'm here if you should let's start a brand new now call to me my love you think that i don't right now there'll be no other time even mean and i can show you how a single word i say my love it's only words and

words are all i have to take your heart away

How to motivate people?
1. What are the main factors for motivating you to work hard in a company? Do you think more pay means a higher level of job satisfaction and motivation? 2. Why do some people change their job frequently? How can you keep your employees? A.How can a teacher get the students more involved in class activities? B.Suppose you work with the HR manager and are asked to find out ways to motivate a group of programmers who are on a long biz trip, get stuck in a strange city for a long time. How?

Heinz Dilemma海因茨困境
? Heinz‘s wife was near death, and her only hope was a drug that had been discovered by a pharmacist/druggist who was selling it for an exorbitant昂贵 price. The drug cost $20,000 to make, and the pharmacist was selling it for $200,000. Heinz could only raise $50,000 and insurance wouldn't make up the difference. He offered what he had to the pharmacist, and when his offer was rejected, Heinz said he would pay the rest later. Still the pharmacist refused. In desperation, Heinz considered stealing the drug. Would it be wrong for him to do that?

Heinz Dilemma海因茨困境
? A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. Should Heinz have broken into the store to steal the drug for his wife? Why or why not?

Reasons
1. Cost of criminal act. Can he afford? 2. Purpose of his criminal act? To save life? To sell for good money? 3. Punishment to face, otherwise laws are useless.
1. The existing law has flaws. 2. Property rights can not be overstepped. (Infringed) 3. Respect for others interests

? Heinz‘s dilemma is a frequently used example in many ethics and morality classes. Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral development: ? From a theoretical point of view, it is not important what the participant thinks that Heinz should do. Kohlberg's theory holds that the justification the participant offers is what is significant, the form of their response. Below are some of many examples of possible arguments that belong to the six stages: ? ? ? ? ? ? Stage one (obedience): Stage two (self-interest): Stage three (conformity): Stage four (law-and-order): Stage five (human rights): Stage six (universal human ethics):

? Stage one (obedience): Heinz should not steal the medicine because he will consequently be put in prison which will mean he is a bad person. Or: Heinz should steal the medicine because it is only worth $20,000 and not how much the druggist wanted for it; Heinz had even offered to pay for it and was not stealing anything else. ? Stage two (self-interest): Heinz should steal the medicine because he will be much happier if he saves his wife, even if he will have to serve a prison sentence. Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine because prison is an awful place, and he would more likely languish in a jail cell than over his wife's death. ? Stage three (conformity): Heinz should steal the medicine because his wife expects it; he wants to be a good husband. Or: Heinz should not steal the drug because stealing is bad and he is not a criminal; he has tried to do everything he can without breaking the law, you cannot blame him.

? Stage four (law-and-order): Heinz should not steal the medicine because the law prohibits stealing, making it illegal. Or: actions have consequences. ? Stage five (human rights): Heinz should steal the medicine because everyone has a right to choose life, regardless of the law. Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine because the scientist has a right to fair compensation. Even if his wife is sick, it does not make his actions right. ? Stage six (universal human ethics): Heinz should steal the medicine, because saving a human life is a more fundamental value than the property rights of another person. Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine, because others may need the medicine just as badly, and their lives are equally significant.

? Was this morally permissible? Why or why not?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

How can you argue with this?
Provided he is willing to accept the consequences for his actions (violation of the laws that protect the rights of the person that legally distributes the drugs) then his actions were morally consistent. But if he did not accept responsibility then his motives would become suspect. And I would consider it an immoral act. Let me explain my answer further by using the dilemma at two fold. In addition to the above let us also assume that the druggist who owns the intellectual property of the drug he invented also has a wife dying of a cancer that another druggist invented a cure from and charges more for than it costs to make. So that the druggist must come up with 4,000 dollars to afford the cure. Because his drug cures only a very rare cancer he must charge a much higher price because if he sold it at cost or even slightly he would never hope to generate the money he needs in his life time. You see his individual rights were infringed upon by the thief perhaps justifiably so but still. So if the thief is willing to pay the consequences for his actions then he did the right thing. But the dilemma attempts to force us to assume that the druggist does not have any moral motive or right to charge so much for his intellectual property. In the real world, we assume otherwise. That if an individual owns something, like a patent on a drug, then it is their right to seek gainful reimbursement for the effort they expended in creating that product, or service.

? ?

Warm-up Activities
1. What are the main factors for motivating you to work hard in a company? Do you think more pay means a higher level of job satisfaction and motivation? 2. Why do some people change their job frequently? How can you keep your employees?

Communicative Strategies
Tips for improving your employees’ motivation ? Taking a communicative approach ? Providing interesting work ? Cultivating a good team spirit ? Encouraging employees ? Offering satisfactory financial awards ? Defining clear objectives ? Providing training ? Creating a good environment ? No overtime work if possible Ref: What Motivates Workers

What to do?
? 1. Read Unit 2 The Power of Notes: Find words that are repeated in this article and their synonyms(同义词)。 ? 2. Underline the sentences that you like very much. ? The conscience of words ? . P57 Ex 1,2


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